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Owner: alauer594
Created: May 8, 2019
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2017 Law Enforcement Employees By State
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I chose to perform my analysis on Law Enforcement Employees.

I first ran summary statistics and obtained the following results:

 

Summary statistics:

Summary statistics:

 

ColumnnMeanVarianceStd. dev.Std. err.MedianRangeMinMaxQ1Q3IQRCoef. of var.Mode
Total Law Enforcement Employees By State in 2017 51 18763.549 5.2958109e8 23012.629 3222.4126 9972 118178 1506 119684 4437 22750 18313 122.6454 No mode


Data was obtained from ucr.fbi.gov and reported all 50 states including the District of Columbia for a total of 51 observations.

Central Tendency

The average or mean number of law enforcement employees in 2017 was 18,763.5.

The median or middle number of law enforcement employees in 2017 was 9,972, much less than the mean which was influenced by (high) extreme values of California 119,684, Florida 72,088, New York 83,642, and Texas 70,987. This would suggest a right skewed distribution, as confirmed by the boxplot below.

The mode is listed as no mode in my summary statistics, due to the fact that no two states have the same amount of law enforcement employees.

Variation

With a standard deviation of about 23,012.6 employees, this is really large.  Namely on average, each state has a number of law enforcement employees 23,012.6 different from the mean. This value is rather large because it is bigger than the mean. The variance of 5.29e8 is the deviation squared.

The range of the data is 118,178, meaning there are 118,178 employees between the smallest (min) number of law enforcement employees per state of 1,506 and the largest (max) number of law enforcement employees per state of 119,684. I wonder if the size of the state is a big factor in influencing this kind of difference.

Position

The five number summary is (1,506, 4,437, 9,972, 22,750, 119,684) which would be represented in the boxplot had I not selected to identify outliers with fences.  The interquartile range is 18,313, stating that the middle 50% of data or law enforcement employess per state have a range of 18,313, starting at 4,437 and going up to 22,750 spans 18,313 law enforcement employees. The remaining 50% of the data lies below the 4,437 and or above 22,750 law enforcement employees per state.

 

The boxplot shows the right skew of the distribution with a longer right whisher.  It also shows the outliers mentioned above.  

 

 

 

Since there are outliers present, it is good practice to remove them from the data set and rerun the analysis.

 

The outliers consisted of California 119,684, Florida 72,088, New York 83,642, and Texas 70,987.

 


 

Summary statistics:

 

 

 

ColumnnMeanVarianceStd. dev.Std. err.MedianRangeMinMaxQ1Q3IQRCoef. of var.Mode
Total Law Enforcement Employees By State in 2017 47 12990.213 1.0755524e8 10370.884 1512.749 9811 38963 1506 40469 4208 20060 15852 79.83614 No mode

 

  I can see all of the statistics have shrunk. The mean dropped to 12,990.2, the standard deviation was cut in half to 10,370.9, the range shrunk to 38,963, and the IQR decreased to 15,852.

 Looking a the new boxplot, there is still a right skew in the dataset.

Overall, I was interested in this dataset because I have family who is in law enforcement.

 

 

 

 

 

               
                             

 

Result 1: Law enforcement employees by state 2017 boxplot   [Info]
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Result 2: Law enforcement employees Boxplot without outliers 2017   [Info]
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Data set 1. Total Law Enforcement Employees By State in 2017   [Info]
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