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Created: Feb 24, 2019
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Data Study of Sleep Patterns
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As a member of group #2, we created a survey using data collected to learn about the sleep patterns from our friends, family, co-workers and peers.  We used a sample population of American adults (aged 18+ yrs. old) by applying the following methods through a convenience sample to get easy results: Facebook, face to face questioning and/or an open Stat Crunch survey.  As a result, our responses were voluntary being that all the respondents did not participate in the survey.

The following questions were asked in our survey:

  1. How many hours of sleep do you get a night?
  2. How would you rate your quality of sleep?  very poor, poor, fair, good, very good
  3. How old are you?
  4. Are you male or female?   male/female

II. Looking at a Categorical Variable

A. We asked the question "How would you rate your quality of sleep?" to yield the responses shown in the pie chart below.

Result 1: Pie Chart for sleep quality   [Info]
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You can see that the majority of those surveyed claim to sleep fairly well, a little more than a quarter report that they get a good sleep while approximately 15% say they sleep poorly.  Although, roughly 9% claim to sleep very good, approximately 3.5% report very poor sleep.

B. Now, let's take a look at how quality of sleep varies among men and women.

Result 2: Bar Plot of sleep quality for men and women   [Info]
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Among men and women, most men and women report that they get a fair quality of sleep although it is higher for women.  Also, there doesn't seem to be much of a difference in men or women reporting a very good sleep there does seem to be a dramatic difference in both sexes reporting a very poor sleep. 

III. Looking at a Numerical Value

A. In this section, the results to the question "How old are you?" can be seen in the following histogram, box plot and summary statistics below.


Result 3: Histogram regarding Age   [Info]
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Result 4: Boxplot age of respondents   [Info]
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Result 5: Summary Stats of Age   [Info]

Summary statistics:

ColumnnMeanVarianceStd. dev.MedianRangeMinMaxQ1Q3IQRMode

C. The histogram shows an abnormal distribution with a slight skewness to the right and the following values: mean approx. 42.6 yrs. old, median=40 yrs. old, midrange= (16+83)/2=49.5 yrs. old, mode=28, IQR=22 and SD=13.7 yrs. old

D. Mean approx. 42.6 with median=40; mean is greater than the median which may reflect its slight skewness to the right.

E. With many variations related to this question, the range=67 yrs. old with the midrange=49.5 yrs. old and a standard deviation of 13.7 yrs. old. The range of the middle, or IQR, is 22yrs old.  These variations account for the distribution of the histogram.

F. The boxplot was constructed using the following figures: Min=16yrs. old, Q1=32yrs. old,  Q2/median=40yrs. old, Q3=54yrs. old and Max=83yrs. old.

Outliers in boxplot: There seem to be no known outliers based on the values of Q1 (32) and Q3 (54)


IV. Looking for a Relationship between Two Numerical Variables

A. Using the paired data of the questions "How many of hours of sleep do you get a night?" and "How old are you?", we created the scatterplot below to see the relationship between the results.

Result 6: Scatter Plot of Hours of Sleep vs Age   [Info]
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The scatterplot reveals a cluster of individuals reporting a fair quality of sleep between the ages of approximately 30-45 yrs. old.  We can also see that a select amount of those approx. 45yrs old and up reported very good/10+ hours of sleep a night.

The correlation coefficient of the paired data equals 0.023 as stated below and, being that the value is closer to zero, it shows no correlation of the variables related to hours of sleep and the age of the respondent.


Result 7: Correlation of Hours of Sleep and Age   [Info]
Correlation between Sleep and Age is:




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