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Created: Dec 7, 2018
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Phase 3: Flagler Students and Juul
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Phase 3: Flagler Students and Juul


On the first phase of this project, the social media habits of a sample of 150 Flagler College students from fall semester 2018 was explored. In this phase of the report, this same sample of 150 students will be divided into two smaller samples. The two samples are the sample of Flagler College students who who used JUUL Flavored Pod before and the sample of Flagler College Students  have not used JUUL flavored Pod before. For purposes of this report, the two samples will be defined with a simple phrase. The term “Have Used” will define the sample of those Flagler College students who have used JUUL Flavor Pods and the term “Never used” will refer to the sample of those Flagler College students who have never used JUUL Flavor Pod. There are 85 “Never used” and 65 student  “have Used”. A bar chart representing the two samples is presented below.



Result 1: Students who have used and students who have not used JUUL Flavor Pod before



Students Who Have Used vs. Students Who Have Not Used JUUL Flavor Pod Before

 

 

 

 

 

 

On this phase of the report, attention will be given to students’ opinions about whether they feel that JUUL use should be banned on Flagler College Campus.

These statistical methods will determine if the sample results conclude that the majority of Flagler College Students think that the Juul should be banned on campus. The first thing that should be conducted should be a hypothesis test to conduct evidence for finding the majority. Second, a confidence interval to see if the population correlates with the majority that Flagler College students who have used a Juul believe that the Juul should be banned from campus.


These statistical results will also be used to see if all the population of Flagler College students who have used a Juul and the whole population who have not used a Juul, and see if there is a large difference in opinion regarding if the Juul should be banned off of Flagler Campus.


Hypothesis Test #1: Claim of Majority



In the sample of 150 students,  reported that the use of Juuls should be banned on campus.  That is, the majority, 51.33%, of the students sampled expressed that the Juul should not be allowed and banned on campus.  These sample results will be used to test the claim that the majority of the population of Flagler College students believe the Juul should be banned on Flagler campus at a level of significance of 0.05  A pie chart of the data is given below.



Result 2: Pie Chart With Data -  Should it be Banned





 

 

 

Hypothesize

              Null: Fifty percent of all Flagler College students believe that Juuls should be banned on  Flagler College Campus.

              Alternate: More than 50% of all Flagler College students believe that Juuls should be banned on Flagler College  Campus.

Based on the alternate hypothesis, this is a right-sided test.

Prepare

              1. Random Sample – Frankly, probably not (but we hope it is representative).  However, to proceed, we will assume it is.

              2. Large Sample – Since np0 = (150) (0.50) = 75 > 10 and n(1-p0) = (150) (0.50) = 75 > 10 are both true statements, the sample is large.

              3. Big Population – Since 10n = (10)(150) = 1500 < 2500, the population is big.  Recall, Flagler College has a population of appropriately 2500 students.

              4. Independence within Sample – Yes, the student responses were taken in such a way that their responses were independent of each other.

 

Compute

Result 3: One sample proportion summary hypothesis test - Should be Banned


Interpret

Since the p-value (<0.628) is more than the level of significance of 0.05,  we must fail to reject the null hypothesis. Therefore, there is not sufficient evidence to support the claim that the majority of all Flagler College students feel that the use of Juuls should be banned on Flagler College Campus.


Confidence Interval #1 – Estimating the Population Proportion

              The hypothesis test does not gives sufficient evidence that the majority of all Flagler College students feel that Juuls should be banned on Flagler College Campus. Therefore, a confidence interval will be created to estimate the percent of the population of all Flagler College students who believe that Juuls should be banned on Flagler College Campus.   Since a one tailed test with a level of significance of 0.05 was run, a 90% confidence interval will be created.

Prepare

              1. Random Sample with Independent Observations – Again, probably not (but we hope it is representative).  However, to proceed, we will assume it is. Furthermore, yes, the student responses were taken in such a way that their responses were independent of each other.

              2. Large Sample – Since n*phat = (150)(0.4867) = 73 > 10 and n*(1 – phat) = (150)(1 – 0.4867) = (150)(0.5133) = 77 > 10, the sample is large.

              3. Big Population – Since 10n = (10)(150) = 1500 < 2500, the population is big.  Recall, Flagler College has a population of appropriately 2500 students.

 

 

Compute

Result 4: One sample proportion summary confidence interval - Distraction


Interpret: We are 90% confident that between 42% and 55.4% of all Flagler College students  feel that the use of Juuls on Flagler College Campus should be banned. It is important to note that this does not represent the views of majority of Flagler College students.



Hypothesis Test #2:


A contingency table was created to compare the opinions of the students who have used Juul flavor Pod  and those who have never used Juul flavor Pods regarding whether they felt it should be banned. Of the 85 Students who have not used a Juul, 56 felt Juuls should be banned and of the 65 Students who have used a Juul, 21 felt the Juul should be banned.  That is, 65.9% (56 students out of 85) of the Not Used Students felt that Juuls should be banned and 32.3% (21 students out of the 65 students) of the Used Students felt that Juuls should be banned. With an approximately 34% difference in these percentage, the sample gives some reason to believe that the population of Students who have Not Used at Flagler College and the population of Students who have Used at Flagler College differ in their opinion that Juuls should be banned from campus.




Result 5: Contingency table (with data) -  Used before Vs. Should be Banned


A hypothesis test will be used to determine if this difference is statistically significant for the population of students at Flagler College.  This test will be run at a level of significance of 0.05.


Hypothesize

Null: There is no difference in the proportion of the population of students who have used Flavor Pod Juul at Flagler College and the proportion of the population of students who have used Juul Flavor Pod at Flagler College who feel that Juul Flavor Pod should be banned.

 

Alternate: There is a difference in the proportion of the population of students who have used Flavor Pod Juul at Flagler College and the proportion of the population of students who have used Juul Flavor Pod at Flagler College who feel that Juul Flavor Pod should be banned.

 

Based on the alternate hypothesis, this is a two tailed test.

Prepare:

1.      Large Samples – It is found that the pooled sample proportion is

 

p-hat = (x1 + x2)/(n1 + n2) = (29 +44 )/(85 + 65) = 73/150 = 0.4867

Sample One (Used before): Since n1*p-hat = (85)(0.4867) = 41 > 10 and

n1*(1 - p-hat) = (85)(1 – 0.4867) = (85)(0.5133) = 43.6> 10, sample one is large.

Sample Two (Unsocial Students): Since n2*p-hat = (65)(0.4867) = 31.6 > 10 and

n2*(1 - p-hat) = (65)(1 – 0.4867) = (65)(0.5133) = 33.4 > 10, sample two is large.

2. Random Samples – Again, probably not (but we hope they are representative).  However, to proceed, we will assume they are.

3. Independent Samples – Yes, the student responses were taken in such a way that their responses were independent of each other.

4. Independence between Samples – Yes, there is no relationship between  used Juuls flavor pod and have not used Juul Flavor Pod.

 

Compute

Result 6: Two Sample proportion Hypothesis Test- Not Used Vs. Banned


Interpret

Since the p – value = <0.001 is less than the level of significance of 0.05, the null hypothesis will  fail to reject. Therefore, there is not sufficient evidence that there exists a difference in the proportion of the population of  Students who feel that Juuls should be banned at Flagler College and the proportion of the population of students at Flagler College who use JUUL.


Confidence Level #2- Two Sample proportion Hypothesis Test- Used vs. Banned


The hypothesis test gave us sufficient evidence that there is a significant difference in the opinion that Juuls on campus should be banned between the population of Used Students at Flagler College and the population of Not Used Students at Flagler College Therefore, a confidence interval will be created to estimate this difference and hopefully confirm that the two population proportions cannot be equal.  Since a two tailed test with a level of significance of 0.05 was run, a 95% confidence interval will be created.



Prepare

              1. Random Samples with Independent Observations – Again, probably not (but we hope it is representative).  However, to proceed, we will assume it is. Furthermore, yes, the student responses were taken in such a way that their responses were independent of each other.

2. Large SamplesSample One (Social Students): Since n1*p-hat1 = (85)(0.5133) = 43.6 > 10 and

n1*(1 - p-hat1) = (85)(1 – 0.341) = (85)(0.659) = 56.0 > 10, sample one is large.

Sample Two (Unsocial Students): Since n2*p-hat2 = (65)(0.677) = 44.0> 10 and

n2*(1 - p-hat2) = (65)(1 – 0.677) = (65)(.333) = 21.6 > 10, sample two is large.

3. Big Populations – Recall, Flagler College has a population of appropriately 2500 students.  Since we are unsure what overall percentage of the students are or are not affected socially by social media, we will assume 50% are and 50% are not.  Hence, there are approximately (0.50)(2500) = 1250 students who are Social Students and (0.50)(2500) = 1250 students who are Unsocial Students in the population.

Population One (students who use Juuls): Since 10n1 = (10)(85) = 850 < 1250, population one is big.

Population Two (Students who don’t use Juul ): Since 10n2 = (10)(65) = 650 < 1250, population two is big.

4. Independent Samples – Yes, the student responses were taken in such a way that their responses were independent of each other.

 

Compute

Result 7: Two Sample proportion Summary Confidence Interval Level - Not Used Vs. Banned




This confidence interval is completely negative; this indicates that the percentage of the population of all Ban Students who have used Juul is less than the percentage of the population of all Allowed Students who have used Juul.  Thus, we are 95% confident that the percentage of all Allowed Students who have used Juul is between 18.4% and 48.8% less than the percentage of all Ban Students who have used Juul.






Conclusion

Juuls have been embraced by the public in recent years and the consequences that Juuls have on our daily life is imperative.  In this report, the sample provided evidence that hat the majority of all Flagler College students did not find that Juul use should be banned on Flagler College Campus.  In fact, it was estimated that between 42.0% and 55.3% of all Flagler College students find that Juul use should be allowed on Flagler College Campus. Furthermore, it was found that there is statistical evidence that those students who use Juul on campus feels that Juul use  should be allowed on Flagler College Campus . It was estimated that between 18.4% and 48.8% more of all Flagler College students who have used Juul before feel that Juul use should be allowed on campus. I feel Juul use is very popular amongst college students today hence many students do not feel like it should be banned on Flagler College Campus.  


The purpose for Juuling was for quitting cigarettes. Now, it has become a socially acceptable thing for teens and young adults to fit into society. It is interesting that the majority of  students who have Not used a Juul believe that the Juul should be banned from campus. Maybe having a rule where Juuling is allowed only for a specific amount of time, would allow students who use time to decrease their addiction. Another policy would be cutting Juuling all together on campus. This would be hard for students who have an addiction to quit, but eventually, they will be living a healthier life. By doing this, there will eventually be an decrease in students who Use the Juul. It will take a long time to enact both policies, but with the help of administration and other students, a smoke-free campus could be achieved.



 

Result 1: Bar Plot- Whether students have used JUUL Flavor Pod   [Info]
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Result 2: Pie Chart With Data- Should be Banned   [Info]
Right click to copy

Result 3: One sample proportion summary hypothesis test   [Info]

One sample proportion summary hypothesis test:


p : Proportion of successes
H0 : p = 0.5
HA : p > 0.5

Hypothesis test results:
ProportionCountTotalSample Prop.Std. Err.Z-StatP-value
p731500.486666670.040824829-0.326598630.628

Result 4: One sample proportion summary confidence interval   [Info]

One sample proportion summary confidence interval:


p : Proportion of successes
Method: Standard-Wald

90% confidence interval results:
ProportionCountTotalSample Prop.Std. Err.L. LimitU. Limit
p731500.486666670.0408103110.419539680.55379365

Result 5: Contingency table (with data)-Used before Vs. Should be Banned   [Info]

Contingency table results:


Rows: Ever Used JUUL
Columns: Banned on FC Campus
No, BannedYes, AllowedTotal
No562985
Yes214465
Total7773150

Chi-Square test:


StatisticDFValueP-value
Chi-square116.620084<0.0001

Result 6: Two sample proportion summary hypothesis test-HT#2   [Info]

Two sample proportion summary hypothesis test:


p1 : proportion of successes for population 1
p2 : proportion of successes for population 2
p1 - p2 : Difference in proportions
H0 : p1 - p2 = 0
HA : p1 - p2 ≠ 0

Hypothesis test results:
DifferenceCount1Total1Count2Total2Sample Diff.Std. Err.Z-StatP-value
p1 - p229854465-0.335746610.082355958-4.0767737<0.0001

Result 7: Two sample proportion summary confidence interval- HT#3   [Info]

Two sample proportion summary confidence interval:


p1 : proportion of successes for population 1
p2 : proportion of successes for population 2
p1 - p2 : Difference in proportions

95% confidence interval results:
DifferenceCount1Total1Count2Total2Sample Diff.Std. Err.L. LimitU. Limit
p1 - p229854465-0.335746610.077517745-0.4876786-0.18381462

Data set 1. Flagler College Students and JUUL - Cuffy, Nickel,   [Info]
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<A href="https://www.statcrunch.com/5.0/viewreport.php?reportid=82859">Phase 3: Flagler Students and Juul</A>

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