Phase Three: Driver Safety of Flagler students in Fall 2018
Introduction
For the first phase of the project, the Driving tendencies of 150 Flagler students in the Fall semester of 2018 were analyzed. In the second phase of the project students were divided into “Course” and “No Course”, based on whether they took a drivers education course or did not take a drivers education course. The “Course students” are the ones who have taken a driver’s education course, and the “No Course” have not taken a driver’s education course. There are 88 Course students and 62 No Course students. A bar chart representing the two samples is presented below.
On this phase of the report we will analyze how whether or not Flagler students think it is safe to drive while holding and talking on your cell phone.
We will be using methods of statistical inference to determine if the sample results will indicate that the majority of the population of all Flagler students think it is safe to drive while talking or holding your cell phone. A hypothesis test will find evidence of the majority and a confidence interval will be made to estimate the percentage of the population who believe it is unsafe to drive while talking on or holding your cell phone. The sample results collected will determine if the opinions of the population of all Flagler students have a statistically significant difference of opinion, regarding using your cell phone while driving. Finding statistical evidence of a difference will once again rely on the hypothesis test, while creating a confidence interval will estimate the difference in percentage of the population of Course and NoCourse students who utilize or hold their phone while driving.
Hypothesis Test #1 A Claim of Majority
Of the sample of 150 students, 131 of them reported that talking on a cellphone while driving is not safe. This means that the majority of students sampled, 87.33%, feel that talking on a phone while driving is unsafe. These sample results will be used to test the claim that the majority of the population of Flagler College students also view talking on a cellphone while driving as an unsafe practice, at a level of significance of 0.05. A pie chart of the data is given below:
Hypothesize
Null: Fifty percent of all Flagler College students believe that talking on the phone while
driving is unsafe
Alternate:More than 50% of all Flagler College students believe that talking on the
phone while driving is unsafe.
* Based on the alternate hypothesis, this is a rightsided test.
Prepare
1. Random Sample – It’s likely not random but to proceed, we will assume it is.
2.Large Sample– Since np0 = (150) (0.50) = 75 > 10 and n(1p0) = (150) (0.50) = 75 > 10 are both true statements, the sample is large.
3. Big Population – Since 10n = (10)(150) = 1500 < 2500, the population is big. (Flagler College has a population of around 2500 students.)
4. Independence within Sample – Yes, the student responses were independent of each other.
Compute
One sample proportion summary hypothesis test:
p : Proportion of successes H_{0} : p = 0.5 H_{A} : p > 0.5 Hypothesis test results:

Interpret
The large test statistic obtained from this hypothesis test suggests that the probability of the null hypothesis occurring is unusual. This is complemented by an extremely low pvalue of less than 0.0001, which is less than the significance level of 0.05, resulting in my group’s rejecting the null hypothesis. There is not enough evidence that suggests that half (50%) of Flagler students feel the talking on a phone while driving is dangerous. Therefore, there is sufficient evidence to support the claim that the majority of all Flagler College students feel that talking on the phone while driving is unsafe.
Confidence Interval #1 Estimating the Population Proportion
The hypothesis test gives sufficient evidence that the majority of all Flagler College students feel that talking on a cellphone while driving is an unsafe practice, therefore, a confidence interval will be created to estimate the percent of the population of all Flagler College students who believe the same. Since a one tailed test with a level of significance of 0.05 was run, a 90% confidence interval will be created.
Prepare
1. Random Sample with Independent Observations – Although it probably isn’t random, to proceed, we will assume it is; The student responses were independent of each other.
2.Large Sample – Since n*phat = (150)(0.8733) = 130 > 10 and n*(1 – phat) = (150)(1 – 0.8733) = (150)(0.1267) = 19 > 10, the sample is large.
3.Big Population – Since 10n = (10)(150) = 1500 < 2500, the population is big. Flagler College has a population of around 2500 students.
Compute
One sample proportion summary confidence interval:
p : Proportion of successes Method: StandardWald 90% confidence interval results:

Interpret
We are 90% confident that between 82.9% and 91.8% of all Flagler College students feel that talking on the phone while driving is unsafe. This is clearly the majority of all Flagler College students.
Hypothesize Test #2 A Claim of the Difference between two Population Proportions
A contingency table was created to compare the opinions of the Course and No Course students regarding if they used their cell phone while driving. There are 62 No Course students and 88 Course students. Out of the 62 No Course students, only 5 of them said yes they do use their cell phones while driving. While the remaining 57 No Course students said no, they do not use their cell phone while driving. For the 88 Course students, 74 of them said no they did not use their cell phones while driving, while 14 Course students said yes, they do. Therefore, out of the total 150 students, only 19 students said yes, they used their cell phones while driving.
Contingency table results:
Rows: Driver Education
Columns: Talking on Cell Phone while Driving
No 
Yes 
Total 

No 
57 
5 
62 
Yes 
74 
14 
88 
Total 
131 
19 
150 
ChiSquare test:
Statistic 
DF 
Value 
Pvalue 
Chisquare 
1 
2.0233897 
0.1549 
A hypothesis test will be used to determine if this difference is statistically significant for the population of students at Flagler College. This test will be run at a level of significance of 0.05. A 95% confidence interval was created.
Hypothesize
Null: There is not a substantial difference between the population of Course students at Flagler and the proportion of the population of No Course students at Flagler college who believe.
Alternate:There is a substantial difference in the proportion of the population of Course students at Flagler College and the proportion of the population of No Course students at Flagler College who feel there should be a law against using a cell phone while driving.
Prepare
1. Random Sample with Independent Observations – Although it probably isn’t random, to proceed, we will assume it is; The student responses were independent of each other.
2.Large Sample – Since n*phat > 10 and n*(1 – phat) > 10, the sample is large.
3.Big Population – Since 10n = (10)(150) = 1500 < 2500, the population is big. Flagler College has a population of around 2500 students.
4. Independence within Sample – Yes, the student responses were independent of each other.
Compute
Interpret
The Hypothesis Test created was meant to give us an indication if the difference between Course and No Course students at Flagler College, was statistically significant. Since the pvalue (.1549) is greater than the significance level of .05, we will fail to reject the null hypothesis.Meaning that there is not substantial evidence that there is a big difference between the Course students and No Course students.
Confidence Interval #2 Estimate the Difference between two Population Proportions
The Hypothesis test gave our group enough evidence that there is significant difference in the opinions of Flagler students who have taken a driving class and those who have not. The opinion was about if a law should be in place to prevent texting and driving. A confidence interval will be created to estimate the difference and hopefully confirm that the two population proportions cannot be equal.
Prepare
1. Random Samples with Independent Observations – Again, probably not (but we hope it is representative). However, to proceed, we will assume it is. Furthermore, yes, the student responses were taken in such a way that their responses were independent of each other.
2. Large Samples –Course students sample is greater than or equal to 10. And no Course students is also greater than or equal to 10. So
3. Big Populations – Recall, Flagler College has a population of appropriately 2500 students. Since we are unsure what overall percentage of the students who have or have not taken a drivers education course, we will assume 50% have and 50% have not. Hence, there are approximately (0.50)(2500) = 1250 students who are Course Students and (0.50)(2500) = 1250 students who are No course Students in the population.
Population One (Social Students): Since 10n1 = (10)(62) = 620 < 1250, population one is big.
Population Two (Unsocial Students): Since 10n2 = (10)(88) = 880< 1250, population two is big.
4. Independent Samples – Yes, the student responses were taken in such a way that their responses were independent of each other.
Compute
Two sample proportion summary confidence interval:
p1 : proportion of successes for population 1
p2 : proportion of successes for population 2
p1  p2 : Difference in proportions
95% confidence interval results:
Difference 
Count1 
Total1 
Count2 
Total2 
Sample Diff. 
Std. Err. 
L. Limit 
U. Limit 
p1  p2 
5 
62 
12 
88 
0.055718475 
0.050339949 
0.15438296 
0.042946011 
Conclusion
The purpose of our project was to explore and analyze the driving habits and viewpoints of students at Flagler College during the Fall Semester of 2018. We gathered a significant amount of data addressing topics, such as the number of times students had been pulled over, whether they had taken a driver’s education course and their opinions on the use of cellphones while driving, just to name a few. Some of our results had a minimal statistical difference. For example, we asked the150 students in the sample whether they took a driver’s education course prior to getting their license. We had found that 88 students were “Course” students, making up 58.6% of the population. While only 62 students, 41.33% of the population, were “NoCourse” students. In comparison, we had data that was far more statistically significant. We gathered data from the same 150 students about whether it was safe to talk on your cellphone or hold it while drivingwith an astounding 87% of the population, 131 students, believing it wasn’t safe, and a mere 12%, 19 students, believing it was. Overall, we have gathered a significant amount of statistical evidence to say that a majority of the sample of students at Flagler College exhibit safe driving habits. With the amount of students who drive a car on campus, it would be interesting to see how other students would answer and if it would significantly impact the data in anyway. This topic also has potential for some outliers, due to if students aren’t fully truthful about their driving habits or past driving experiences.
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