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Created: Mar 8, 2016
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STA 2023 Project - Percent Garaduate & Professional, Percent Work at Home
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a)   a) For % Graduates and Professionals, the histogram appears to be skewed right. This observation assumes that, in most cases, the mean is going to be greater than the median. In this graph, the mean of 10.488 is certainly greater than the median of 9.9.


For % Work at Home, the graph appears to be skewed right as well, which also leads us to expect that the mean is going to be greater than the median. Since there was a low frequency on the first class, the median and the mean are not so different, but the mean is still greater than the median with a value of 4.47, while the median is 4.4.


b)    b)   For % Graduates and Professionals, it is shown that (according to the survey) 9.6% of people in Florida that are 25 years and over have a graduate or professional degree. This percentage is LOWER than both the mean (of 10.448%) and the median (of 9.9%), being 0.35 standard deviations below the mean, which means that the percentage of graduates and professionals in Florida is below the national average. It is possible that these numbers may be related to the high percentage of immigrants that live in Florida, which are mostly Latin seeking for a better quality life, but they arrive with language and financial limitations. These barriers make it harder for them to earn a degree, so many of them decide to take part in a “blue collar” job and forget about school.


For % Work at Home, the Florida value is 5.0. This means that 5% of the employees in Florida work at home. Florida is HIGHER than the mean of 4.47% and the median of 4.4%. Florida’s value is 0.47 standard deviations ABOVE the mean, which means that there are more employees who work at home in Florida than the national average.


c)      c) The highest percent of professionals is in the State of Massachusetts, which has an unusual value of 17.1% when the expected maximum is 15.55%. According to the politician and journalist Reid Wilson, the underlying reason is that “Massachusetts passed a major school reform package in 1993, increasing spending, particularly in poorer districts; raising assessment standards; and making licensure exams for new teachers more difficult… Massachusetts Republican and Democrats alike continued investing heavily in education” (Par. 5). He also mentions that “More than 60% of Massachusetts children have a parent with a post-secondary degree, 14 points higher than average, and nearly 60 percent of 3-4-years-olds are enrolled in preschool, more than 10 points above the national average” (Par. 3). He continues saying that “nearly half of Massachusetts fourth-graders are proficient on National Assessment of Educational Progress reading tests, and more than 54 percent of eighth-graders get proficient scores on NAEP mat test – both the highest rates in the country” (par. 4). With this in mind, it is not surprising that Massachusetts ranks on the top of the rest of the States in the amount of professionals and graduates with 1.55 percent of graduates above the expected max.


For % Work at Home, the standard deviation is only 1.12 with no unusual values, which makes it a little hard to find a pattern that indicates a special difference in a particular State or area. However, it’s not surprising that the two States with the least amount of workers from home are Louisiana and Mississippi with a value of 2.4%. This could be due to the fact that most of the employees that operate from home are graduates who work for a company that has an online platform from which they can work anywhere. Louisiana and Mississippi are two of the three poorest States of the country, being Mississippi the poorest of all three according to the journalist Natasha Bertrand. This is directly related to the first graph, in which Mississippi and Louisiana scored 7.6% and 7.5% respectively (two of the three lowest values for the percentage of professionals) which shows that Mississippi and Louisiana have a very low percentage of graduates. This leads us to expect a high unemployment rate or a high amount of people that don’t have a decent job in which they can work from home. This self-explanatory fact potentially indicates the reason why Mississippi and Louisiana have a very small amount of people that work from home --many employees probably don’t even have a PC or know how to use one.



Wilson, Reid. “Best State in America: Massachusetts, for its Educational Success.” The Washington Post. The Washington Post, 11 Jul. 2014. Web. 4 March 2016.

Bertrand, Natasha. “The 10 Poorest States in America.” Business Insider. Axel Springer, 17 Dec. 2014. Web. 4 March 2016.

Result 1: Summary Statistics   [Info]
Summary statistics:
ColumnMedianIQRnMeanVarianceStd. dev.RangeMinMaxQ1Q3

Result 2: Histogram (Var. 1)   [Info]
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Result 3: Boxplot (Var. 1)   [Info]
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Result 4: Histogram (Var. 2)   [Info]
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Result 5: Boxplot (Var. 2)   [Info]
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