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Owner: karen-bsn
Created: Jul 29, 2012
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Views: 5555
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Inferential Statistics Report for Communication Styles Mod 5. Dr. Racquet
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The purpose of the survey was to take a look at communication style preferences now that we are in a high tech world, and several generations are together. Those that can remember life before the internet, cell phones and texting and those that know only that. I wanted to see if there was any preferred methods that could be identified by age, do older groups prefer land lines or emails versus cell phones and texting? Is Face book used more for communicating versus cell or email? Does anyone use land lines anymore? And do people restrict their usage?

The sample population was a mix of random people approached on the street in a nearby city and family and friends. The latter group was selected on mass by email with the survey link attached and not chosen by age, this way they could choose if they wished to participate or not. The responses of the teams data was pooled into a survey totaling 111 participants with ages ranging from 16 through 87. Gender was not a factor.

We asked the following four questions:

1.   What is your age?

2.   Which form of communication style do you use the most? Email, Text, Cell phone, Land Line, Face book, Twitter, Snail mail, Blog, Other

3.   On average how many minutes do you spend communicating using your preferred communication style listed per day?

4.    Do you limit your usage of this communication style? Yes or No.

Looking at the categorical Variables:

The responses to the question "Which form of communication style do you use the most? Email, Text, Cell phone, Land Line, Face book, Twitter, Snail mail, Blog, Other?" are shown as a pie chart below.


Result 1: Pie Chart Communication style   [Info]
Right click to copy


It can be seen that it was pretty close that the majority of people preferred to use either email or cell phone, with email in first place with (36) 32.43%, Cell phone (35) 31.53%, Texting (25) 22.52% (although I did see an outlier of 1 that was listed as text versus texting, therefore this when added to the texting group would increase that group by 1 (26) with 23.421% as a true value for that group.

I was not surprised to see that the Landline usage among the lower group (4th), with (7) 6.306%. I was surprised to see social networking Face book to be the least preferred method giving its popularity with (4) 3.604%

In order to see if the preference style was limited in its usage or not we can view the bar plot below.


Result 2: Bar plot of preference Type by usage limitation   [Info]
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The data clearly shows that email and cell phone are the most popular form of communication preference, and that the majority do not limit their usage.

If we compute and interpret this data using a 95% confidence level for the population that uses the various communication styles it would look like this.


Result 3: 95% confidence level for communication preference - email   [Info]
95% confidence interval results:
Outcomes in : Form of communication use most?
Success : e-mail
p : proportion of successes
Method: Standard-Wald

Variable Count Total Sample Prop. Std. Err. L. Limit U. Limit
Form of communication use most? 36 111 0.3243243 0.04443216 0.2372389 0.41140977

With Email being the most preferred communication style with a count of 36.

The 95% confidence level is 0.41< p < 0.24 with a point estimate of 0.325.

The margin of error would then follow 0.085.

Looking at Numerical Values

The responses to the question "What is your age?" are shown in the histogram, boxplot and summary statistics below:

Histogram of Age


Result 4: Histogram of Ages   [Info]
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Boxplot of Age


Result 5: Boxplot of Ages   [Info]
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Summary Statistics of Age


Result 6: Summary Statistics of Age   [Info]
Summary statistics:
Column n Mean Variance Std. Dev. Std. Err. Median Range Min Max Q1 Q3
What is your age? 111 42.306305 247.1235 15.720162 1.4920918 42 71 16 87 29 55


The histogram shows that there is no normal distribution. That is is slightly skewed towards the younger age group (skewed to the right).

The mean and median are the same (42) the modes are 19, 31 & 56 respectively, which indicated a non normal distribution.

The box plot shows the largest age group variation lies between 29 – 56. With a couple of outliers at the extremes namely ages 16 and 87.

Looking for a relationship between two numerical variables.

To determine if there is a relationship between the responses to the questions “What is your age?” and “On average how many minutes do you spend communicating using your preferred communication style listed per day?” We need to look at the data on a scatter plot of the paired data.


Result 7: Scatter Plot for Age versus usage in minutes/day   [Info]
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The scatter plot reveals

The correlation coefficient of the paired data is -0.318337 as shown below:

Result 7. Correlation of age /usage in minutes per day


Result 8: Correlation between Age and usage in minutes/Day   [Info]
Correlation between What is your age? and How many minutes spent(avg) using this comm. style? is:


I can confidently say that there is no correlation between age and usage in minutes per day.


 The original data set is supplied below.

(<data set1>)



Data set 1. Communication Styles Group 6   [Info]
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